The article analyses gender inequalities in the probability of being working poor by considering the effect of macro-level labour market characteristics related to the unfavourable conditions women experience when being employed. In Europe, women are on average less likely to be employed as compared to men, they hold less qualified positions, and receive (after observable characteristics are controlled for) lower wages. We present a comparative analysis across 31 European countries that considers the relationship between i) gender differences in working poor and ii) the prevalence of temporary work, part-time work, low-wage, and availability of childcare (specifically aiming at increase female participation). Women display higher likelihood of being working poor compared to men in all countries. The gender pay gap is the most relevant factor among those considered as proxies of unfavourable labour market characteristics for women. Moreover, female participation increases women’s relative disadvantage in the probability of being working poor, even net of childcare availability.